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What is Allergic?

An allergy is an abnormal immune response to a substance that is normally harmless to most people. This substance is called an allergen. When an allergen enters the body of a person with allergies, their immune system identifies it as a threat and produces an immune response. This immune response can cause various symptoms ranging from mild to severe, and can affect different parts of the body.


The symptoms of an allergic reaction can vary depending on the type and severity of the allergy. Some common symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

  • Respiratory symptoms: sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
  • Cardiovascular symptoms: rapid or irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, and lightheadedness.
  • Anaphylaxis: a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction that can cause symptoms such as swelling of the throat, difficulty breathing, drop in blood pressure, rapid pulse, and loss of consciousness.


Allergies can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
Exposure to allergens: Exposure to certain allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, animal dander, and certain foods or medications, can trigger an allergic reaction.
Previous exposure: Previous exposure to an allergen can increase the risk of developing an allergy to that substance.

DR Shruti Bajad

MBBS, MD (Internal Medicine)
Consultant Rheumatologist